Jules Verne in 'The Mysterious Island' in 1870, wrote:
"And what will they burn instead of coal?"
"Water", replied Harding.
"Water!" cried Pencroft, "Water as fuel for steamers and engines! Water to heat water!"
"Yes, but water decomposed into its primitive elements", replied Cyrus Harding, "and decomposed doubtless, by electricity, which will then have become a powerful and manageable force, for all great discoveries, by some inexplicable laws, appear to agree and become complete at the same time. Yes, my friends, I believe that water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light, of an intensity of which coal is not capable. Some day the coalrooms of steamers and the tenders of locomotives will, instead of coal, be stored with these two condensed gases, which will burn in the furnaces with enormous calorific power. There is, therefore, nothing to fear. As long as the earth is inhabited it will supply the wants of its inhabitants, and there will be no want of either light or heat as long as the productions of the vegetable, mineral or animal kingdoms do not fail us. I believe, then, that when the deposits of coal are exhausted we shall heat and warm ourselves with water. Water will be the coal of the future."
Well we might say, Jules Vernes could not be more accurate in describing what today we call Aquafuel ™ and some other similar trade names. A new carbon arc technology is now being used underwater to produce ultra-clean-burning, low-cost alternative synthesic gas. This simple method of producing a hydrogen/carbon/oxygen gas holds great promise for energy and chemical production. AquaFuel is being produced in demonstration units and is now undergoing tests in engines and research labs.
The above photo was taken with permission from MagneGas . You can have a detailed description of the technology in their large web site Santilli Magnegas.
To make COH2 - a low dc voltage in the range 30 to 50v at high current is used to produce an electric arc which tunnels through water between the tips of common carbon electrodes. The 5,000 to 7,000 degrees F heat from the arc dissociates nearby water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbon atoms break loose from the positive electrode and form bonds in this high energy plasma soup. The resulting COH2 molecules cool and bubble up to the surface in the surrounding water where they are collected and ready for combustion.
The above unit is similar to the basic demonstration unit found on JL Naudin's Alternative fuels site with the additional capability of a motorised drive which is electronically controlled to provide a constant current arc by controlling the distance between the two carbon electrodes. Anybody can now produce their own fuel on demand and on sight. EPA's tough new rules to fight smog, electric utility deregulation, and even the new world’s push to cut atmospheric carbon dioxide means a period of change unparalleled in all of the history of power generation. AquaFuel technology can become the perfect solution to the upcoming fuel burning dilemma. This could be the ultimate weapon in the EPA's war on SO2 and NOX and even the new PM 2.5 particulate standard rules and future proposals. Even the carbon from biomass is being converted to fuel with this technology.
The AquaFuel process obtains COH2 from water and consumes the carbon/graphite electrodes. Apart from being a clean burning fuel, Aquafuel has been tested & confirmed to require less energy to release the gas than as predicted by Faraday's Law of electrolysis, which states that one equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell. The underlying "inexplicable laws" are based on element transmutations which take place at the molecular level between carbon, oxygen nuclei and hydrogen ones.
Whether cold fusion is taking place in such process is highly questionable, because no sort of radiation is being detected. Blaze Labs has performed radiation tests for Alpha, Beta, X-ray and Gamma in the above shown Aquafuel generator with zero radiation results. The output gas has also been tested for radioactive particles with null positive readings. In all tests we have done, radiation level was equal to background radiation of 10uR/hr. The mutation taking place must be one in which the total number of protons, neutrons and electrons of an element are conserved, but their magnetic moment is not. See 'magnecules' below. Also, since the plasma unshields the water molecules from their electrons, a special kind of chemical reaction maybe taking place at nuclear level, changing the binding energy of the atoms in the process, which would have results similar to those mentioned in cold fusion articles - anomalous heat, mutations of IR signatures, etc... These chemical reactions may be exothermic or endothermic. The temperature will decrease in case thermal energy is transformed into chemical energy (endothermic case) as in the case of COH2 generation. In exothermic reactions the water/solution temperature may rise sharply or the temperature may remain constant if a combination of endothermic and exothermic reactions occur.
As a consequence of the chemical reactions volume and pressure changes within the solution will also occur, and this complicates the thermodynamic response of the fluid considerably. At some point in the heating process the transformation of heat to kinetic energy will predominate over the transformation of heat to internal energy, and this will cause the gas temperature to decrease at the Rayleigh Temperature Inversion Point (provided no other exothermic reactions occur at these conditions). These two effects, chemical transformation and fluid dynamical response may well occur simultaneously, and if the chemical reaction is endothermic quite a severe temperature decrease may be effected in the hot gas, effectively transforming heat into chemical energy and kinetic energy. Various repeated experiments involving plasma, show that the transformation has a COP>1. A good analogy for this process is the Heat Pump in which low- grade thermal energy is converted to a higher-grade thermal energy by the use of a small amount of electric energy. In this the amount of heat converted is several multiples of the electric energy input... The Coefficient of Performance (COP) characterises the effectiveness of the Heat Pump, and the COP can be as high as 10, or even more.
We have tested our aquafuel generator to see the output power one can obtain using the gas output to drive a normal petrol generator. The engine used was a Mitsubishi GM82, 80ml displacement, rated 2.4HP@3600RPM, 4cycle OHV type, coupled to a 1.2KW generator. It is very important to run dry the fuel carburateur reservoir before starting any measurements. These generators are able to run for about 3 minutes without their fuel tank by using fuel left in their reservoir. Voltage & current readings were taken at the aquafuel cell input as shown below:
|Aquafuel engine run test|
|Voltage||Current||Power input||Gas output||Mixture output (1:5)||Test result|
|35 V||40 A||1400 W||1.5 L/min||9 L/min||Engine fails to start|
|34 V||60 A||2040 W||2.3 L/min||14 L/min||Engine runs but rough idle|
|32 V||80 A||2560 W||3.1 L/min||18.6 L/min||Engine runs at 1000rpm|
|30 V||120 A||3600 W||4.0 L/min||24 L/min||Engine runs at 2000rpm|
|30 V||180 A||5400 W||6.5 L/min||40 L/min||Engine runs at 3600rpm|
The above tests were done with no load connected to the electrical generator, so a lean mixture much higher than 1:5 could be used. With full load connected (1.2kW) the input power should be higher than 5.4kW, which gives an overall efficiency of <22%. This is not too bad considering that in a typical petrol compression engine, the efficiency is only about 20%. For a single piston engine like the GM82 unit, this value maybe even lower.
So, considering the 80% losses involved in the combustion engine , those of the electrical generator, and the heat and light emission in the aquafuel generator, the actual conversion of electric power into gas within the plasma is very high. Even though the actual conversion taking place within the aquafuel generator maybe close to 100%, the total system conversion efficiency is much less than unity, the bottleneck being the engine losses, so there is no way such a system can ever operate in closed loop as some have claimed. The only way to operate the aquafuel generator from the output of the electrical generator in a closed loop would be to have a fuel conversion efficiency of over 500%, which is clearly NOT the case.
Let's calculate the fuel conversion efficiency on our test unit (neglecting the combustion energy given off by the few grammes of burnt carbon rod):
INPUT=Watt hr/Litre of our generator = 5400/(40*60)= 2.25 Whr/Litre
OUTPUT=COH2 quoted energy = 380 BTU/cf = 3.93 Whr/Litre
Fuel Conversion efficiency = 3.93/2.25 = 175%, COP=1.75
This confirms a gas production process COP>1. Note we are talking about COP, and are not claiming over unity!
Where does this COP come from? The covalent radius of a neutral hydrogen atom is 0.0371 nm, smaller than that of any other element. Because small atoms can come very close to each other, they tend to form strong covalent bonds. As a result, the bond dissociation enthalpy for the H-H bond is relatively large (435 kJ/mol). H2 therefore tends to be unreactive at room temperature. In the presence of a spark, however, a fraction of the H2 molecules dissociate to form hydrogen atoms that are highly reactive.
The heat given off when these H atoms react with O2 is enough to catalyze the dissociation of additional H2 molecules. Mixtures of H2 and O2 that are infinitely stable at room temperature therefore explode in the presence of a spark or flame.
One thing we noticed immediately was that now, with this new gas fuel we could operate the petrol engine indoors with no nasty exhaust smells, in fact there is no smell at all. AquaFuel burns in conventional engines so cleanly that internal combustion engine exhaust gas emission is actually cleaner than any fossil fuel, as confirmed by Briggs & Stratton, one of the leading dynamometer emission test labs. The following engine tests were performed on the same IC engine by comparing Aquafuel to Gasoline.
Nontoxic carbon dioxide and water vapor are the exhaust products from AquaFuel and air combustion. Hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide emissions are negligible even without any pollution control equipment of any type. Automobile engine oil stays clean and lasts long - reducing the need for frequent oil changing and cutting waste oil disposal problems. AquaFuel combustion creates lower exhaust gas and engine oil temperatures - helping to preserve oil integrity while the system runs cooler than burning gasoline in the same engine producing nearly the same power.
According to a gas analysis performed by NASA, Hydrogen (~46%), carbon monoxide (~38%), and carbon dioxide (~9%) are the dominant atomic components in AquaFuel before combustion. This result is however contradicted by the fact that permeability tests on this gas disproves the presence of 46% Hydrogen. A balloon of Hydrogen leaked to 10% its diameter within 2 hours, whilst the same balloon leaks to the same percentage, only after 3 to 6 months! Also, the presence of 46% free hydrogen would result in a high percentage of Nitrogen oxide in the exhaust, which was not the case. Balloons filled with this fuel also showed an anomalous attraction by metal beams. Other gases reported by NASA include: Ethylene, Ethane, Acetylene, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Methane. Nitrogen content is also in contradiction with the evidence that much Nitrogen in the mix would render the fuel a cold burner. Carbon dioxide and water vapor are the exhaust products after combustion in air. Helium has been detected by other researchers. Many of the above mentioned inconclusive aspects of this fuel, indicate that this fuel has characteristics beyond our existing scientific knowledge. While pure hydrogen could be looked to as the ultimate fuel of the future, many technical hurdles need to be overcome before hydrogen can be useful as a general purpose fuel. Hydrogen does not burn well in conventional internal combustion engines because of high combustion temperatures which lead to a host of problems including the creation of nitrogen oxides - proven pollutants. Most commercial hydrogen used today is found with or made from fossil fuels such as natural gas. Hydrogen is very expensive to produce by other methods and it is difficult to store sufficient heat energy power in view of the very low energy density of even highly compressed hydrogen gas.
Today, vehicles equipped to run on natural gas can run on compressed AquaFuel. While natural gas is among the cleanest burning vehicle fuels, it still is an air polluting fuel and can't be manufactured locally on-site at refueling stations. With COH2 cars may some day be able to simply fill-up with non-flammable water and carbon, with no danger of spills, fire and explosions. No dangerous gas reservoirs are required since it may eventually be produced on-board and only when needed to power the engine. Ships would need only to stock-up on carbon, since water is readily available. Good quality distilled water can be obtained at any location by a simple heat pump/ dehumidifier, trapping ambient humidity for consumption. Water consumption in the process is very low. Vulnerability from stored fuel explosions would be eliminated.
AquaFuel can be generated very easily for use upon demand in all petrol engines, needing only the addition of simple intake adapters such as found on fleet vehicles converted to run on natural gas or propane. This gas can also be used for fueling thermal electric power generation, internal combustion engines, furnaces, heaters, stoves, and desalinisation systems. Pollution control equipment can be stripped from existing fossil fueled engine and boiler systems.
Global warming fears from carbon dioxide could be cut with further research on AquaFuel using an internal combustion steam engine. Research into similar fuel generating techniques may unlock the vast potential of both creating and burning fuel underwater to produce heat and power with no atmospheric pollution. AquaFuel is basically a technology that uses carbon to free-up hydrogen and oxygen in an underwater process. Both creating fuel and burning fuel in the same water bath yields highly efficiency and controlled fusion reaction. Heated water can then be converted into work through steam power. Water can dissolve carbon dioxide gas which can be precipitated out in the form of marketable product solid carbonates - just as the oceans capture and process atmospheric carbon dioxide.