Four thousand years ago, Democritis created the point particle of mass to represent the fundamental elements of tangible matter. This concept was satisfactory until about 1900, when quantum properties of matter were found. Then, puzzles, problems, and paradoxes appeared, because most properties of matter derive from the wave structure of particles. Democritis couldn't know this, and until recently few persons challenged this concept, now embedded as a paradigm into mainstream science. Nevertheless, Schroedinger, deBroglie, Dirac, and Einstein, the founders of the quantum theory, preferred a wave structure of matter, and in the last decades researchers have experimentally validated their intuition. Unfortunately however, mainstream science is still stuck within the 'hard particle' paradigm and prefers to use the term 'wave particle duality', instead of clearly establishing that 'hard particles' are nothing but an old scientific misinterpretation, due to our sense of touch. Once the wave structure of matter is accepted, most physics as we know it will automatically collapse, and that will be the start of a completely new unified science.
The notion of wave-particle duality, states that an electron, for example, may sometimes act like a wave and sometimes like a particle. Conventional physics explains that when electrons are excited, packets of quanta are released as electromagnetic radiation and then 'hit' matter, the same way a ball hits a wall, resulting in kinetic and heat energy at the target. It also states that Energy=hf where h is Planck's constant (h = 6.63E-34 Js), that is the frequency band is not continuous, but rather exists in digital steps (quantised) in exact factors of h. This wave-particle duality characteristic, together with the uncertianty principle and quantisation, have totally upset most of the past well known physicists, and although both wave and particle characteristics have been experimentally confirmed, it is still very unclear what's the mechanism undergoing within matter or wave.
Some physicists, attempting to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces, have come to a startling prediction: every fundamental matter particle should have a massive "shadow" force carrier particle, and every force carrier should have a massive "shadow" matter particle. This relationship between matter particles and force carriers is called supersymmetry. For example, for every type of quark there may be a type of particle called a "squark." Again, such reasoning is highly distorted due to the hard particle paradigm. In another separate experiment, researchers led by Valery Nesvizhevsky at the Laue-Langevin Institute in France, isolated hundreds of neutrons from all major effects except gravity, then watched them in a special detector as gravity pulled them down. It was not a smooth fall! As expected by the standing wave theory, the neutrons fell in quantum jumps. This confirms that particle motion in the macro world is not a continuous process! So we see that hard particles and their motion gets quite weird, with quantum movement and imaginary components to describe their motion. This is a strong evidence that the reality based on hard particles moving in space is totally wrong, and has resulted into a whole mess of incompatible scientific fields. Contrary to what our senses make us believe, no experiment has ever shown that hard particles either exist or move! But, on the other hand, we have experiments that show particles disappearing from one place to appear in another place without 'moving' along a path, somehow like being teletransported.
For too many years people imagined atoms as point electrons orbiting around a nucleus. This myth, obviously imitating our planetary system, was shown wrong by quantum theory more than sixty years ago, and despite this fact, it is still the first basic model that students are exposed to in some schools. For example, in the hydrogen atom, quantum theory predicts the electron presence as a symmetrical spherical cloud around the proton. Some physicists, still under the effect of the 600-year-old old myth, concluded that the point bits of matter were still there, even though quantum theory contains no notion of point particles, just because they insist that matter has to be made up of smaller and smaller matter. Actually, in the hydrogen atom both the electron wave-structure and the proton have the same center. As described in my 'Particle' section, both nucleus and electron's structure can be imagined like onion layers - spherical concentric layers of electromagnetic waves around a center. The amplitude of the EM waves decreases, as shown in the graph below. There are no point masses, no orbits - just waves.
As you can read in 'The Particle' section, the spherical standing wave concept of matter solves all Quantum Theory enigmas and more. The spherical standing wave concept, based on matter structured of concentric spherical polyhedra, avoids and explains the paradoxes and problems of hard point particles. In such a theory, mass and charge simply do not exist in nature, and eliminating them from particle structure also gets rid of their problems. As a matter of fact, this theory has only one property as a priori - space together with its built-in characteristics. Instead of mass, charge and time, we have wave nodes and their motion. Standing waves in space possess the properties of mass and charge which we observe in the macro world, but without the eternal problem of finding mass points which do not exist. This simple theory is thus valid from the quantum level to the whole universe, unifying quantum theory with nature. The overwhelming proof of the standing wave structure of matter is the discovery that all the former empirical natural laws originate from the wave structure. In this theory, all things from quantum level to the universe itself obey the same laws, and the shelled spherical polyhedra standing wave structure appears to agree with experimental observations, and can be used to explain such things as nucleus magic numbers, by simply studying their geometrical arrangement.
|Matter from superposition of EM waves|
The above diagram (press Forward to start Applet) shows the amplitude of EM waves as they reach the centre of the spherical wave. The right most side is the nucleus core, and the X-axis represents the distance from the core or radius of the sphere. In the top diagram, observe the wave f(x,t) moving inward. Where the radius is zero the amplitude is infinite. In the second diagram, observe the wave g(x,t) moving outward. Again, where the radius is zero, the amplitude becomes infinite. This infinity value at the core does not actually occur in practice, as the radius can never be smaller than Planck's length, so Lp-1 may never reach infinity and thus keep the model valid.
The lower diagram is the resultant of the two waves f(x,t)+g(x,t). That is, the two amplitudes are added together, by the superposition property of waves. The sum of the waves is the radial amplitude of the real electron. Watch carefully how the sum wave moves. The wave does not move inward or outward, it goes up and down. That is, it becomes a standing wave. Standing waves with nodes fixed in space, made up of incoming and outgoing EM travelling waves - and this is what we usually call particles of matter. The nucleus, electron, and all the myriad of other particles, are just structures of standing spherical quantum waves.
A wave may either be a travelling wave or a standing wave which is fixed in space. This means that matter is a structure of EM waves, not just a simple concentration of EM waves, but a tuned standing wave structure. In this respect Einstein's equation E=mc2 is quite misleading, because the equation, although mathematically correct, gives no indication of the structure of E in order to get a resulting mass. In fact, any attempt to concentrate huge quantities of energy to generate mass have been a failure. A resonant standing wave is a priori to generating any form of matter from pure energy, and we all know that the building block of a standing wave are in- and out-going waves. Once this matter standing wave structure is broken into smaller structures or even destroyed, the EM elements making it up are released and detected as travelling EM waves or other 'chunks' of smaller standing waves. What all these new ideas seem to suggest is that physical objects (matter), or even reality itself (things in motion), are not at all what everyone had supposed they are 4000 years ago, and it is surely about time that current science makes up for this, even if this comes at the cost of rebuilding from scratch science itself.
In this picture, anything in existence in our 3D universe forms part of a single entity, a single, though complex, pattern of standing waves. The outward waves from a body evoked a response of the universe; that is, the production of inward waves from reflecting bodies elsewhere in the universe. However, the reflected waves began before the moment of acceleration and before arrival of the source waves. The combined waves themselves are the particles, and no point mass or charge is needed. Every charged particle is a structural part of the universe, and the whole universe contributes to each charged particle. Every particle sends quantum waves outward, and receives an inward response wave from the universe. Inward and outward waves, although both spherical, are not the same function, in fact they are different for each particle. Although the variety of molecules and materials populating the universe is enormous, the building bricks are just two, a spherical In-Wave and a spherical Out-Wave.
The first hint of the mechanism of cosmological energy transfer was Ernst Mach's observation in 1883. He noticed that the inertia of a body depended on the presence of the visible stars. He asserted that "Every local inertial frame is determined by the composite matter of the universe" and jokingly, "When the subway jerks, it is the fixed stars that throw us down." How can information travel from here to the stars and back again in an instant? Machs' principle was criticised because it appeared to predict instantaneous action-at-a-distance across empty space. As Einstein observed; "Forces acting directly and instantaneously at a distance, as introduced to represent the effects of gravity, are not in character with most of the processes familiar to us from everyday life." Space is not empty because, although not observed easily, it is the quantum wave medium produced by waves from every particle in the universe, as predicted by Machs' Principle long ago. The energy exchange of inertia, charge, and other forces are mediated by the presence of the space medium. There is no need to 'travel' across the universe. Special relativity is founded on the basis of the law of the constancy of the velocity of light. But the general theory of relativity cannot retain this law. On the contrary, according to this latter theory the velocity of light must always depend on the coordinates when a gravitational field is present."
The spherical IN and OUT waves of the source and receiver oscillate in two-way communication , until a minimum amplitude condition is obtained (i.e. Resonant Coupling). The decrease of energy (frequency) of the source will equal the increase of energy of the receiver. Thus energy is conserved. E-M waves are observed as a large number of such quantum changes.
Three hundred years ago, Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch mathematician, found that if a surface containing many separate wave sources was examined at a distance, the combined wavelets appeared as a single wave front. This wave front is termed a Huygens Combination of the separate wavelets. This mechanism is the origin of the in-waves, whereby our In-Waves are formed from a Huygens' Combination of the Out-Waves of all the other matter in the universe. This occurs throughout the universe, so that every particle depends on all others to create its in-wave. We have to think of each particle as inextricably joined with other matter of the universe. Although particle centers are widely separated, all particles are one unified structure. Thus, we are part of a unified universe, and the universe is part of us.