The Particle - The wrong turn that led physics to a dead end

Engineer Xavier Borg - Blaze Labs


From waves to particles
by standing waves in space

We have shown that the atom can be perfectly modeled by a standing wave pattern much in common with that of a radio antenna. The problem to visualise matter as being composed of a volume of electromagnetic waves is the fact that matter has got a structure, whilst an EM wave does not. It is true that EM waves have no structure, and are continously vibrating, but EM waves can be 'trapped' within a volume of space, given their dimensions are exact multiples of Planck's half wavelength, forming what is commonly called a standing wave. The nodes within the standing wave form the structure. All objects have a frequency or set of frequencies with which they naturally vibrate when struck, plucked, or somehow given an impulse, these are called the natural frequencies. Each of the natural frequencies at which an object vibrates is associated with a standing wave pattern. When an object is forced into resonance vibrations at one of its natural frequencies, it vibrates in a manner such that a standing wave is formed within the whole object. A standing wave pattern is described as a vibrational pattern created within a medium when the vibrational frequency of a source causes reflected waves from one end of the medium to interfere with incident waves from the source in such a manner that specific points along the medium appear to be standing still. Such patterns are only created within the medium at specific frequencies of vibration; these frequencies are known as harmonic frequencies, with the first harmonic referred to as the fundamental. In our context, this fundamental harmonic is highly related to Planck's length. At any frequency other than a harmonic frequency, the interference of reflected and incident waves results in a resulting disturbance of the medium which is irregular and non-repeating. Our medium is the vacuum through which EM radiation is well known to be able to propagate and vibrate.


Tip of a platinum needle enlarged 750,000 times.
Are those 'hard particles' or standing waves?



Field ion microscope image of a 'single crystal' tungsten tip.
Are those 'hard particles' or standing waves?



Water standing waves formed with vertical oscillation in a circular dish
Image courtesy of Ray Tomes

On the first two photos, you can see typical images from field ion microscope for platinum and tungsten tips. The bright areas correspond to positions on the tip where the electric field is particularly high, i.e. where the local radius of curvature of the crest of the wave is particularly small. In the lower photo we see water waves formed with 280 Hz vertical oscillation in a 6.3 cm circular dish. The particle like waves travel about independently when a medium strength oscillation is applied. This is very suggestive that atomic particles are similarly formed as standing waves. Some non-linearity is necessary to have stability. In this case it is supplied by the different rate of acceleration applied to the water from above (by gravity) and below (by pressure). Surface tension applies in both directions.

So the natural frequencies of an object are merely the harmonic frequencies at which standing wave patterns are established within the object. These standing wave patterns represent the lowest energy vibrational modes of the object. While there are countless ways by which an object can vibrate (each associated with a specific frequency), objects favor only a few specific modes or patterns of vibrating. The favored modes (patterns) of vibration are those which result in the highest amplitude vibrations with the least input of energy. Objects favor these natural modes of vibration because they are representative of the patterns which require the least amount of energy. Objects are most easily forced into resonance vibrations when disturbed at frequencies associated with these natural frequencies.

The wave pattern associated with the natural frequencies of an object is characterized by points which appear to be standing still; for this reason, a pattern in 2D is often called a "standing wave pattern", whilst we may call a pattern in 3D, a "standing wave structure". The points in the structure which are at stand-still are referred to as nodal points (in 2D) or vertex positions (in 3D). These positions occur as the result of the destructive interference of incident and reflected waves. Each nodal point is surrounded by anti-nodal points, creating an alternating pattern of nodal and anti-nodal points. A classical two dimensional demonstration utilizes a square metal plate (known as a Chladni plate), a violin bow and salt. The plate is securely fastened to a table using a nut and bolt; the nut and bolt are clamped to the center of the square plate, preventing that section from vibrating. The salt is then sprinkled upon the plate in an irregular pattern. Then the violin bow is used to induce vibrations within the plate; the plate is strummed and begins vibrating. At a certain violin tone, a high-pitched pure tone is sounded out as the plate vibrated; and, remarkably the salt upon the plate begins to vibrate and forms a pattern upon the plate. The pattern formed by the salt on the plate is the standing wave pattern associated with one of the natural frequencies of the Chladni plate. As the plate starts to vibrate, the salt begins to vibrate and tumble about the plate until they reach points along the plate which are not vibrating. Subsequently, the salt finally comes to rest along the nodal positions. The diagrams show two of the most common standing wave patterns for the Chladni plates. The white lines represent the salt locations (nodal positions). Observe in the diagram that each pattern is characterized by nodal positions in the corners of the square plate and in the center of the plate. For these two particular vibrational modes, those positions are unable to move. In a 3D standing waves, a structure, with all charactesitics of a platonic solid, is formed for each standing wave mode. Within an atom, which is the building block of matter, the platonic solid is not formed by salt or known particles, but by electromagnetic waves in vacuum. The final result, the standing wave structure, is one which has a structure, an inertia, a reaction to other standing wave structures, and a reaction to external EM waves, all characteristics of what we use to call 'a particle', which can be felt and seen. As we shall see later on, particles are point effects of the standing wave nodes.

Both the students of Buckminster Fuller and his protege Dr. Hans Jenny devised clever experiments that showed how the Platonic Solids would form within a vibrating / pulsating 3D sphere. In the experiment conducted by Fuller's students, a spherical balloon was dipped in dye and pulsed with pure sinewave sound frequencies. A small number of evenly-distanced nodes would form across the surface of the sphere, as well as thin lines that connected them to each other. If you have four evenly spaced nodes, you will see a tetrahedron. Six evenly spaced nodes form an octahedron. Eight evenly spaced nodes form a cube. Twelve evenly spaced nodes form the icosahedron and twenty evenly spaced nodes form the dodecahedron. The straight lines that we see on these geometric objects simply represent the stresses that are created by the closest distance between two points for each of the nodes as they distribute themselves across the entire surface of the sphere.

Dr. Hans Jenny conducted a similar experiment, wherein a droplet of water contained a very fine suspension of light-colored particles, known as a colloidal suspension. When this spherical droplet of particle-filled water was vibrated at various diatonic musical frequencies, the Platonic Solids would appear inside, surrounded by elliptical curving lines that would connect their nodes together. As we shall see, these dark points, which are nothing but point of intersections of nodes are the supposed 'point bits of matter'.

coverCymatics - by Dr. Hans Jenny

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