## The Particle - The wrong turn that led physics to a dead end

© Engineer Xavier Borg - Blaze Labs

Time and spherical wave solutions

Perception of time through vortices (CP) asymmetry

We measure time by clocks, but clocks do not really measure time. If time slows down, everything will slow down, including the clock, and we could never detect or feel any change. If time slows down by a factor of ten, a clock in the same time-frame will still show a 24 hour day. We can only measure the difference between our time-frame and another. How would we know if time flows backwards. In the universe the time flow can be noticed by the direction of waves in space, inward or outwards from a source, outward being the normal positive time. Similarly, if the real electric and real magnetic fields are in the form of a spherical standing wave, their real cross product always points to the center of the sphere, and we call this real mass, which would always be positive. But how does matter flow through time? We know that when a slight imbalance in standing wave mechanism occurs, the standing wave will surely but slowly drift either towards or away from the source. In our real & imaginary spherical standing wave, the drifting nodes will be the platonic shapes, which will either drift outwards or inwards the sphere, depending upon the symmetry imbalance between the real & reflected waves. This effect is perceived by matter as flowing through time.

Wheeler and Feynman (1945) modelled the electron as spherical inward and outward electromagnetic waves, seeking to explain radiation forces, however they failed, because as it was illustrated, the spherical wave is hidden, and is only clearly visible when rotating the standing wave structure. Once you have the standing spherical wave front, you have also got the ingoing and outgoing spherical EM waves and can then account for radiation forces. The major deficiency of the classical force laws is that they have no theoretical or physical mechanism for energy transfer. The formulae contain only constants, "mass" and "charge," - no function & no mechanism. This was an inherent defect of the static point particle model. Einstein, Wheeler and Feynman knew this, recognizing that there must exist a continual dynamic means for forces to transfer energy, and sought it in electromagnetic waves. Unfortunately there are no spherical solutions for the travelling vector e-m wave equation. Hence the mechanism had to await the scalar waves.

The above diagram shows a 3D view of a tetrahedron rotated 360 degrees simultaneously about each of its three axis, as viewed from a frozen time axis. This is the complex vortex one would get from a standing wave structure based on the tetrahedron. If one had to view such rotation, while giving depth to the image as time flows, the tetrahedron flowing past time would get smaller and smaller. The resulting plot of its vertices as viewed from a camera fixed over one of the vertices, would be exactly as shown on the left, which happens to be the well known Treble Julia Set crop circle found overnight in the UK. The wave equation must be written in spherical coordinates because cosmological space has spherical symmetry. Uniform density of the medium (space) is assumed, which yields a constant speed of the waves (and 'light'). Then the only two solutions describe the charge waves of common charged particles including the electron, positron, proton, and anti-proton. They are:

IN-wave amplitude = {A/r} e^{(iwt + ikr)}

OUT-wave amplitude = {A/r} e^{(iwt - ikr)}

A= wave amplitude peak

r = radius from wave center

w = 2.pi.f

t = real time

k = mc/h = wave number

Energy = E = hf = mc^{2}.

At the center (the mirror), the in/out waves are joined by rotating the in-wave to transform it to the out-wave. Superposition of the two amplitudes to produce a standing wave can occur in two ways depending on rotation, CW or CCW. One is the electron, the other the positron, with opposite spins. Writing the rotation operators as CCW or CW ,then the two resonance amplitudes are:

Rotating standing wave electron = E(-) = {IN-wave - OUT-wave} CCW

Rotating standing wave positron = E(+) = {OUT-wave - IN-wave} CWThe above diagram, is equivalent to the complex vortex diagram, based on the same rotating tetrahedron, but with the time dimension represented in the shell distance from the core. Thus the outer shells represent the present and inner ones represent the past. The diagrams thus represent time reversal.

To perform an entropy or time inversion, change CCW to CW, which converts the time factor from positive to negative, and the positron into an electron. You will see that a positron is a mirror image of the electron viewed from the real space-time. To change a particle to an anti-particle (real to imaginary), switch the in-waves and the out-waves, it's like viewing the real particle in the mirror.

If they collide, the electron standing wave structure and anti-particle (positron) standing wave structure disappear, to leave only a non-standing (travellling EM wave) energy - an act of mutual destruction, called annihilation. Experiments have since demonstrated that most other particles, protons, neutrons, muons and so on, have anti-particles. Note that in all such cases energy is not destroyed or created, but rather their structure is destroyed, releasing the energy within it.

When particle and anti-particle meet, a spontaneous burst of pure energy is produced, such process called annihilation. Let's go a step further. Since anti-matter is the reflection of matter, and vice-versa, in this central core black hole or singularity, one would expect that matter and anti-matter exist in equal amounts, referred to as symmetry. This indicates that way back to the era when the universe is created, which should have huge energetic conditions, the amount of matter should be equal to that of anti-matter...but something unusual happened, which resulted in the existence of space & time itself. If symmetry had been conserved, why did the anti-matter not completely annihilate the matter, leaving only energy in the universe? Or why doesn't anybody ever encounter stable anti-matter or maybe anti-matter planets? At this point we should know the answer, because anti-matter EXISTS but is NOT REAL - it can be observed as matter through its reflection in the cetral core of each elementary particle.

So why do we live and observe the matter side (REAL part) of things, and not the other. It is believed that there is a breakdown in the symmetry, called the charge-parity, CP-violation. It is this violation that causes the amount of matter to be slightly more than anti-matter. For this reason we, and all the matter around us, can exist, and anti-matter always lags behind matter in time. If you have read carefully up to this point, you will now understand why action on a particle will always cause a motion AFTER (NOT before) the force has been applied. This is the law of causality, and seems quite obvious - but such law would be reversed if anti-matter leads matter in time, or simply exists in higher abundance than matter. In such a case, having a CP-violation of the opposite value, would make us live in and observe an anti-matter universe, but still exist. 'Existence' shall only stop when time itself stops, and that can only happen when the CP-violating factor is exactly null.

In 1964, scientists got another anti-matter surprise, when a team of physicists, studying neutral kaons in experiments at DOE's Brookhaven Laboratory, discovered a slight but definite assymmetry in the behaviour of the neutral kaon and its anti-particle - an assymmetry called charge-parity, or CP, violation. Until that discovery, physicists had believed that particles and anti-particles behaved symmetrically, like mirror reflections of each other.

At Fermi Labs during 1999, it was announced that epsilon prime over epsilon equals 28 E -4. Now SLAC is offering a more robust measurement of the CP-violating parameter, referred to as sine (2beta); the value it reports is 0.59 with an uncertainty of 0.14. From this result we can conclude that there are less than 3 chances in 100,000 (<0.003%) that the actual, physical assymmetry could be equal to zero. This is a direct measure confirming charge parity assymmetry or violation between the real and imaginary components of the same particle, which is the only measure of the arrow and rate of time - perhaps the reason why we live on the real side and why real mass exists in positive time & entropy, whilst virtual particles exist in negative time & entropy.