In all textbook physics we learn that masses, including planets, obey fixed laws of nature. Until the last decade, these laws were measured properties of nature, no theoretical or physical origin was known. These measurements indicated that the movement of energy and information, which are needed to carry out the laws, travel consistently at the speed of light, and that nothing (no information) can travel faster than light. This motion satisfied our rule of causality; that is: Events always occur after their causes.
However, some events have repeatedly seemed to violate the rule of causality. One such force is called Quantum entanglement. This term is used to describe the way that particles of energy/matter can become correlated to predictably interact with each other regardless of how far apart they are.
Also, events such as gravity pull between planets seem to be transmitted instantaneously, otherwise it can be shown that any two planets will spiral into each other. As shown by Sir Arthur Eddington, this means: "If the Sun attracts Jupiter towards its present position S, and Jupiter attracts the Sun towards its present position J, the two forces are in the same line and balance. But if the Sun attracts Jupiter toward its previous position S', and Jupiter attracts the Sun towards its previous position J', when the force of attraction started out to cross the gulf, then the two forces give a couple. This couple will tend to increase the angular momentum of the system, and, acting cumulatively, will soon cause an appreciable change of period, disagreeing with observations if the speed is at all comparable with that of light." (Eddington, 1920, p.94).
Evidence of infinite gravitational phase speed at zero frequency has been also recently observed by a few other researchers by noting the high stability of earth's orbit about the sun. Light from the sun is not observed to be collinear with the sun's gravitational force. Astronomical studies indicate that the earth's acceleration is toward the gravitational centre of the sun even though it is moving around the sun, whereas light from the sun is observed to be aberated. If the gravitational force between the sun and the earth were aberated, then gravitational forces tangential to the earth's orbit would result, causing the earth to spiral away from the sun, due to conservation of angular momentum. Current astronomical observations estimate the phase speed of gravity to be greater than 2x1010c. This value could very well indicate the limit of the measuring equipment in trying to time a force which unlike EM waves does not travel, but acts at two distant points at the SAME TIME regardless of how far apart they are.
Indeed, even Newton's equation for the force of gravity, F=GMm/r2, indicates that the gravitational force is not a function of time, that is d/dt(GMm/r2)=0. This is not the same for EM induced forces, where radiation momentum on matter = hf/c, which as you see depends on frequency which IS time dependent. The Newtonian gravity has two special traits. One, there is no event horizon for Newtonian gravity. Two, it transmits its force in a manner of immediate (non local) action at a distance. So, the non-locality is fully compliant with Newtonian gravity. All these events, which indicate the transmission of energy and information at superluminal speeds (or infinite speeds), are somehow all related to the gravitational force. Accepting that something can travel at infinite speed makes no sense, however one may explain this effect if the medium through which it travels cannot be differentiated with respect to time dimension, and hence have no aberration. Indeed, General Relativity suggests that gravity is not a force that propagates. Also, it is widely accepted, even if less widely known, that the speed of gravity in Newton's Universal Law is unconditionally infinite. But since there has not been a good scientific explanation of how this could ever be possible, we still learn that gravity forces travel at the speed of light, and the reason given is that no information can travel faster than the speed of light. This is definitely wrong, as no one has yet been able to show that gravity information 'travels along'.
The fact that the gravitational effect is felt before its cause is 'seen' at the observer does not mean that causality is actually being violated. Instead, the strange event is merely due to the fact that gravity effect and EM waves are not travelling through the same medium, or better, through the same spatial dimensions. It is quite similar (although not really analogous) to the delay between a lightning flash and its thunder, if one assumes that nothing travels faster than sound, one would say that the lightning occurred before the strike. The interpretation of violation of causality is created by our incomplete knowledge of the Standing Wave Structure of Matter, and of the special energy exchanges taking place within matters' central sub-quantum core and its periphery. All electromagnetic communication (radiation & radiation pressure on masses), detected in 3D space, still travel at c, the speed of light. Action at a distance can be completely understood if one considers the fourth spatial dimension. As already discussed here, the only way we humans get to percieve this 4th spatial dimension is through the perception of time. Any energy fields in this dimension will appear to us to be time independent. Our mind normally perceives speed as the rate of change of a spatial dimension with respect to time, but what happens if we try to detect the rate of change of time with respect to time itself? Gravitational forces are taking place in this 4th spatial dimension, which is orthogonal to all 3D spatial dimensions, the one we normally perceive as 'time' and therefore the concept of 'travelling' in 3D space makes no more sense for such a force.
The speed of gravity information is still hotly debated, but the EPR experiment is a well accepted scientific experiment which proves instant action at a distance. The EPR experiment (named after Einstein, Podolski and Rosen) in which two quantum particles A and B which were once together fly apart and are measured at two distant locations A and B. In the Quantum Theory, observer A's choice of what kind of measurement to make on particle A instantly changes the state description of particle B--a general feature of quantum theory called "quantum phase entanglement". In the theory a particle is represented by possibility amplitudes and relative phases. When the particles separate, so do the amplitudes, but the phases of particle A remain entangled with the phases of particle B. Any action on A--such as reaching the observation sensor--changes not only A's phases but the phases of B as well. This action of observer A on distant particle B does not diminish with distance, cannot be shielded and travels faster than light. This distant influence is unmediated, unmitigated and immediate. Such quantum connection between two particles once together now apart is a lot like voodoo--no known force connects particles A and B--just the fact of their once being together suffices to mingle their phases. Such instant voodoo influences are called "non-local"; all ordinary light-speed-limited forces are called "local". All interactions taking place in the fourth dimension will of course look like voodoo to a 3D observer, as long as the observer does not recognise TIME as a real SPATIAL dimension.
This 4th dimension is common to all particles and establishes an interesting feature in the whole universe : the cosmic wavelength. The resulting 'heart beat' is the same for all matter, because the homogeneity of the medium of the waves produces a fixed wave frequency. That's why Planck's constant is a constant through galaxies light years away from each other, since for gravity or quantum entanglement, a light year distance and 1 mm make no difference. The thickness (one planck wavelength or one timeframe) & homogeneity (G-gravitational constant) of this medium, sets a standard frequency of vibration for the smallest electric entities (dielectric entities) across the universe, as well as a relation between them for their action at a distance. An other interesting property of this cosmic clock is that it is always in phase at every particle boundary. This means that if you get two electrons, any two in the whole universe, their in-going and out-going waves will be EXACTLY in phase. Same applies for all matter in the universe being it an electron, proton, neutron or whole particle.
The notion of such universal clock has been suggested by deBroglie. He stated that the universal frequency of the electron is fe = mec2/h, and that this will be the same for any electron that exists anywhere. This frequency standard based on Planck's constant is a property of the special subquantum core we have defined earlier in this section and, thus, as we already stated, it is the same for all particles. Similarly this uniform medium thickness also provides a measure of minimum quantum length, time interval and speed of light. In a way this medium gives a sense for the existence of both real and imaginary space-times. Without it, there would be no boundary limits for the existence of length and time and the standing wave structures we refer to as the 'elementary building blocks of matter', and hence no universe, nothing at all. So, how do particles 'feel' each other within this medium?
The spherical wave structure of particles provides range and location information for the force laws. Nautical navigation teaches us that the curvature of a wave front is sufficient to determine the range and position of the center of the source of the wave fronts. This is the simple mechanism available to two particles to find their relative range and position. But what about wavefronts in a time independent medium; they should not exist. That's right, but since the homogeneity of the medium is constant (G), and all sources have the same intensity at the interface, the attenuation level would give their relative position without the requirement of a wavefront.