As you see, the one-third electron charge keeps popping up from every experimental evidence we have. Weyl, Clifford, Einstein, and Schroedinger once speculated, "What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space." Our spherical tetrahedron model shown above is indeed based on this speculation and clearly indicates that the six quarks connecting up the protons & neutrons are equivalent to the six sides of the spherical tetrahedron. Protons and neutrons are just the point effects of their points of intersection, and these types of hadrons can therefore be defined as the intersection point of 3 standing wave planes.
Remember that the six sides of this tetrahedron are in fact a picture of the fundamental standing wave nodes which appear on any 3D vibrating sphere. So, if the sides of our model are the 1 dimensional quarks (6 off), then, each vertex connecting a group of 3, will define a hadron (a group of 3 quarks). In the diagram you see the three blue elements are equivalent to down quarks and the 3 red ones to up quarks. By joining together these two frames, a three dimensional closed platonic structure consisting of two neutrons and two protons is formed, equivalent to the simplest & strongest stable nucleus of Helium, namely the Alpha particle. This model also clearly explains why neutrons and protons never collide within a nucleus, despite being so close. Once the platonic structure is completed, the protons and neutrons act as a single entity - the one we call nucleus. It also gives a new meaning to the strong nuclear bonds, since a tetrahedron is the most stable, and compact geometric 3D shape.
At first, it might seem a little bit confusing that a 'solid' nucleus, is made up of a fixed 3D geometric shape of 2D planes and no 3D hard particles, but the fact that we can now explain a quark in terms of a 1 dimensional nodal string connection makes sense and reassures us that we really found the most fundamental elements - simple elements with no structure. The charge on each of these hadrons is simply the addition of the charges of the quarks, or sides making up the frame of the particular hadron. This spherical tetrahedron model has some interesting attributes not the least of which is the fact that spheres which resonate in phase are known to "attract" one another, while those with unlike phase angles will repel. We have established that atoms are EM vibrating spheres and this gives a new more clear meaning to the gravitational force between atoms. It is known that two spheres vibrating in phase attract. If all matter in the universe is a differential of the same 4D hyperspherical EM singularity, then it makes sense that all matter gets attracted to each other since all matter would be vibrating in phase.
|3 Dimensional Platonics|
Look closely at the hadron pair coloumn: 2,2,4,10.
If we start off with the tetrahedron, and add up shells with the next platonic, we will get the series: 2,2,2+2+4,2+2+4+10 = 2,2,8,18.
We know that the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons, hence to the number of hadron pairs. Spectroscopy data gives the sequence 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d,... or 2,2,6,2,6,2,10,6,2, which may also be grouped as 2,2,8,18, similar to the shell build up sequence of Tetra, tetra, cube and dodecahedron.
So we have seen that a simple tetrahedron is the most accurate picture for a Helium nucleus, which has the strongest nuclear bond of all elements and is better known the alpha particle. The Alpha particle thus consists of 4 hadrons, two protons and two neutrons, with a total charge of +2. Protons and neutron are equivalent to the vertices of the standing wave shapes. We can also extend the same model to construct the Be4 nucleus, which has a total binding energy of twice that of 4He2. This is done by fitting another tetrahedron as shown below to obtain the 8Be4 nucleus, with its vertices common to a cube, representing its 4 protons and 4 neutrons. Note that these structures should not be considered as solid structures but as nodes on spinning spherical surfaces, with each edge element equivalent to a quark, and each vertex to a nucleon. At all times, tt should be kept in mind that these shapes are actually 3D standing EM waves, which can also share nodes.
|The 8Be4 nucleus platonic combination & equivalent spherical standing wave structure.|