Today, for reasons that Einstein is to blame, scientists no longer talk about aether or ultramundane corpuscles. However they found out that a definition to replace these old fashioned terms is still required despite that the original terms have literally been banned from the scientific literature. Today, the terms electromagnetic radiation, gravitons, and zero point energy took their place. The concept of our EMRP theory can in fact be found in quantum electro dynamics theory QED. In QED every region of space contains an infinite number of radiation modes, each contributing an energy of 1/2hf, and are known to exist even at zero Kelvin. In QED, these zero point fields (ZPF) are however considered as 'virtual' fields that are practically useless other than to randomly pop in and out particles from nothingness. Within EMRP, this ZPF is considered to be composed of classical electromagnetic waves which carry energy in the same way as the rest of the known electromagnetic spectrum, and thus able to be converted into other forms of energy and do work.
This concept does in fact explain reported phenomena as the Lamb shift, Van der Waal's forces and the Casimir effect. This latter is in fact the most elegant experimental effect which shows that an external cosmic radiation or ZPF is reaching all places on earth. As the Casimir plates are moved closer, more of these high frequencies are 'left out' in the air gap, and hence a greater imbalance of radiation pressure occurs. In theory, if the plates are moved closer than the wavelength of the unification frequency, that is at 40.51E-36m, maximum radiation pressure imbalance will occur, at which point, the gap will be completely shadowed of any kind of radiation. However, for this to occur in practice, the metal must be able to shield extremely high frequencies, something not easily achievable with a thin layer of a metal plate. The Casimir experiment, is evidence of external high frequency radiation reaching and penetrating through our planet. Today, scientists call this radiation with terms like vacuum energy, quantum fluctuations and zero point energy. R. Feynman and J. Wheeler once calculated that there is enough vacuum energy in, for example, a coffee cup to evaporate all the world's oceans. The source of this energy is yet unknown, and so does the true nature of the vacuum. In classical physics the vacuum is a ‘nothingness’, a simple absence of all matter and energy. Quantum theory on the other hand states that the vacuum is definitely ‘something’. It is a seething mass of imaginary particles that fleetingly appear as real and back again into imaginary particles. This activity is known as quantum fluctuations. It is generally believed that there exists a smallest length of vacuum space, equal to Planck length, which makes the zero-point energy finite and equal to Planck energy. If so, each cubic millimetre of empty space would contain a huge amount of energy as postulated in the EMRP theory. The actual value of the zero-point energy may be far from near zero, but is usually taken as the zero reference because all energy we measure fluctuates on top of its value. Our senses and instruments can only detect these fluctuations so it seems that trying to probe or use whatever lies beneath, the vacuum energy itself, is a lost case. Not unless a differential of some sort is created. However, the Casimir effect is a clear indication that a differential within the vacuum energy can be created, which leads to a real continuous detectable phenomena in our observable universe, which might someday in the near future, be harnessed to do useful work.
Our sun, which peaks its radiation in the visible spectrum band, is not one of the most energetic ones, and in fact scores below average even when compared with its neighboring suns. Many other suns and astronomical bodies in our own galaxy radiate much higher energy levels. Crab Nebula is an example of the many x-ray generating bodies. It is the remnant of a star that was observed to explode in 1054 A.D. It is located 6,000 light years away in the constellation of Taurus, and is a strong source from radio through gamma ray wavelengths. Chandra's X-ray image (Courtesy of NASA/CXC/SAO) provides no doubt about the mightyness of this cosmic generator, which is producing as much radiation power as 100,000 suns.
There is yet another more interesting source of high frequency radiation, the low frequency counter part of which is called the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). I here quote an interesting piece from an article from Scientific American, March 1991 p26, X-ray Riddle: Cosmic background is still unexplained" and from Astronomy, April 1991, p22, "X-rays Light up Philadelphia".
Even the most contentious people usually agree that the night sky is dark. Don't try arguing the point with an astronomer, however. In 1962 researchers discovered that when seen through instruments sensitive to X-rays, the sky glows with bright and oddly uniform intensity. This pervasive radiation, rather unpoetically known as diffuse X-ray background, has eluded easy explanation. Roughly 25 to 30% of the background has been attributed to quasars... The origin of the rest has been a persistent mystery. The spectrum of the X-ray background closely resembles that of a thin, hot gas.
The same thing is observed with higher bands like gamma radiation. So, from astronomy, we also have enough evidence of very high frequency radiation which "glows with bright and oddly uniform intensity". This uniform intensity is quite intriguing, because it does not coincide with the visible star points in the sky. Is seems that the bare-eye visible stars are not the source of the uniform x-ray/gamma ray radiation. On the other side of the spectrum we find another well known diffused cosmic radiation, known as the infrared or cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). Again this background was found to be of uniform electromagnetic radiation, this time in the lower infrared region.
It may be shocking for the supporters of the big bang theory, which is very much supported with COBE's observations of the lower infrared or microwave background cosmic radiation, referred to as the red shift to know that we also have other radiations with similar properties but on the upper side of the electromagnetic spectrum, which I will refer to it as the Blue Shift Cosmic Radiation. The existence of blueshifts simply dumps the best evidence that the red shift is a result of an expanding universe which started from a hot big-bang.
Evidence of even higher than the highest frequencies accepted by mainstream (Einstein based) theories keep coming in. For more than a decade, physicists in Japan at the University of Tokyo's Akeno Giant Air Shower Array, consisting of 111 particle detectors spread out over 100 square kilometres, have detected several cosmic rays that should not exist.... according to Einstein's special theory of relativity. The origins of these highest-energy waves, which are the most energetic detected to date, are in fact unknown. Einstein's special theory of relativity dictates that any cosmic particles reaching Earth from a source outside our galaxy will have suffered so many energy-shedding collisions that their maximum possible energy limit is 5E19eV, that equates to a frequency limit of 1.21E34Hz. This is known as the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit and is in fact much less than Planck's frequency of 7.4E42Hz, which should be the real limit. This limit was computed in 1966 by Kenneth Greisen, Vadim Kuzmin and Georgiy Zatsepin, based on interactions predicted between the cosmic ray and the photons of the cosmic microwave background radiation.
This means that the detected cosmic particles have invalidated the GZK limit. Astronomers can find no source for these cosmic rays in our galaxy so the chances are they are extragalactic rays, that is, they originate from sources outside our own galaxy. All evidence shows that cosmic radiation is beating the GZK limit and is clearly invalidating Einstein's special theory of relativity. The SR theory specifically states that space is the same in all directions, or isotropic, but what if particles found it easier to move in certain directions than others? Then the cosmic rays could retain more of their energy, allowing them to beat the GZK limit. If space is really isotropic, then one would expect to find the same number of stars in all directions, and galaxies to be spherical instead of disk shaped! The concept of isotropy in SR is obviously flawed. Once EMRP shadowing effect is taken into account, it is easy to see that each massive body in space offers a shadowed volume in space which would shield anything passing through it from cosmic rays. In such theory, there would exist the probability, that a few extra galactical cosmic particles go through a path of minimal cosmic ray density by passing through many shadowed regions, in which case they would beat the GZK limit and go closer to Planck's frequency limit of 7.4E42Hz!
Alan Watson, an astronomer at the University of Leeds, UK, and spokesman for the Pierre Auger project, is already convinced there is something worth following up here. "I have no doubts that events above 1E20 electronvolts (2.4E34Hz) exist. There are sufficient examples to convince me," he says.
Over 30 years ago, Nasa launched the first man-made object destinated to leave the solar system. Pioneer 10 , is heading towards the constellation of Taurus. In two million years, it should theoretically approach the bright star Aldebaran. The probe is the famous one which carries a calling card from humankind, and a plaque designed to tell extraterrestrials where we are, and try to convince them we are intelligent beings... Radio tracking of its course, however, indicates it will take longer to reach the stars than scientists had calculated. Most interestingly, its anomalous deceleration challenges the presently accepted understanding of the force of gravity. Dr. Larry Lasher, head of the Pioneer project team at Nasa Research Centre says "We never imagined that Pioneer 10 - originally designed as a 21-month mission to Jupiter - would survive 30 years and still be delivering surprises in 2002,".
Pioneer 10 lifted off from Cape Canaveral in March 1972. It returned our first up-close pictures of Jupiter late the following year. Hot on its trail was a sister probe, Pioneer 11, which also visited Saturn. Pioneer 10 is presently over 80 times further from the sun than the Earth - about 7.3 billion miles away, more than twice the distance to Pluto. The mission officially ended with its 25th anniversary in 1997, but monitoring continues. Spacecraft tracking by radio is very accurate, making it the optimal way to probe the complex three-dimensional gravitational field in and around the solar system. And that tracking has thrown up surprises. Pioneer 10 is slowing down faster than expected from force fields simply based on the gravitational attraction of the sun and planets. The effect is tiny - only about one part in 10 billion of that due to the Earth's gravity acting on a body on its surface - but it is definitely there. This is a puzzle. The effect shows up best in the Pioneers - Pioneer 11 showed the same trend prior to its switch-off - because they are spin-stabilised. Even though the previous Voyagers were not equipped with spin stabilised systems, and have a noisier tracking signal, their motions are consistent with the slow-down seen best in the Pioneer 10 data. This is also true for Ulysses, which flew past Jupiter early in the 1990's and used its gravity to flip the satellite on to a trajectory taking it over the poles of the sun. The same effect is seen in other space probes. So what is going on? As many scientists suspect, our knowledge of physics is incomplete, or wrong. Some have even proposed an unknown "fifth force" to accompany the weak, strong nuclear forces, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces, in a desperate act to save the mainstream view of forces.
The EMRP theory would seamlessly fix this issue, again by understanding the force of gravity, in terms of the shadowing effect between masses. This is more or less, the opposite to what happens in the GZK limit breaking events. As the probe travels to reach the far end of the solar system, more of the extragalactic cosmic rays will approach the satellite from outside the solar system. The space in which it travels becomes less shadowed from the external cosmic rays than when it was well within the solar system and hence suffer more energy-shedding collisions. This would be equivalent to a variation in the gravitational constant G, wrongly assumed to be a universal constant. In fact any change in the intensity of the net cosmic radiation at any particular area in space, would be shown as a change in the value of G. So, both Einstein's and Newton's laws have to be modified to take into consideration a location dependent value of G, based on the intensity of cosmic waves at the particular location. Only then, would the anomalies reported by the probes, fit into a correct model for gravity. The importance of Mach's principle would also be finally understood, a principle which Einstein has failed to include in his SR theory with fatal consequences to science.
The Doppler effect is related to speed-related frequency changes of waves, and was first proposed in 1842 by Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler. Although originally developed for sound waves, this effect has been later on also applied by Fitzgerald, for light, and for electromagnetic radiation in general. The Doppler effect is based on the principle that the frequency of a wave changes to the observer when there is a relative motion between the source and the observer. A luminous white spot like a star will therefore shift its colour spectrum towards the red or blue according to its relative motion to the observer. This feature is nowadays well understood, and is used by astronomers to detect minor wobbles in a stars position, which would indicate the presence of an orbiting planet around that star. The Doppler shift is also used to calculate the radial velocity of astronomical bodies. Using this effect one can easily understand how a sun like ours, having peak wavelength in the visible spectrum band, can shift its peak radiation towards the X or Gamma spectrum band if it's approaching us at relativistic speeds.
The Doppler effect equations for an observer moving at relativistic speeds relative to a stationary source are given below:
If the detector is moving towards the stationary EM source with a velocity of v, the new frequency for the emitted wave will be shifted to a higher value, and thus called a blue shift. The observed radiation frequency will be:
f'/f = √[(1+β)/(1-β)] .... where β = v/c and c is the speed of light
The wavelengths of all frequency components of the incoming radiation to this mass (observer point) will be compressed and thus shifted towards higher frequencies and is therefore said to be blue-shifted. In contrast, the outgoing waves moving away from the observer are stretched or red-shifted as shown below.
The Doppler shift implies that if Earth, and our whole solar system is approaching a star or external galaxy at relativistic speeds, which is not something unusual, then, the detected radiation will be blue shifted. It means that a galaxy which has its peak radiation centred on the X-ray band, will be detected as radiating in the upper Gamma band when we are approaching it at high speeds. The contrary happens when we are moving away from a galaxy, in which case red shift occurs. Since our galaxy is just one of many, one would expect to be approaching as much external cosmic bodies as much as he is receding. In other words, we must have both extra galactic red shifts and extra galactic blue shifts. The stable red shift background radiation is in fact defining a preferred reference inertial frame in agreement with Mach's principle. The detected CMBR is the red shifted image of the total net energy from the fixed and preferred frame of the fixed stars. Now if we are rotating within the universe, it should make sense that we are not only receding fixed stars, but also approaching others in the same fixed frame. To understand this, visualise 2 concentric circles with 10 fixed points on the circumference of the external circle, denoting 10 fixed stars, which collectively define the preferred frame of reference. Draw one point of the inner circle denoting the position of Earth. As the earth moves, it will both approach and recede the fixed points on the external circle, and hence both a red shift and blue shift will occur.
We do have evidence that our solar system is approaching external radiating sources at very high speeds, and we do as well have evidence of X-ray and Gamma ray emitting cosmic bodies. Taking the case of approaching one such cosmic body, at relativistic speeds, then, its radiation will be blue shifted to the upper frequency band. At its limiting velocity, it's radiation frequency would be very close to the theoretical limit of Planck frequency, which I refer to as the ultra-cosmic radiation band, the radiation responsible for the gravity equivalent radiation pressure. In the EMRP gravity theory, the gravitational force field on earth equates to the radiation pressure of this ultra cosmic blue shifted radiation, which is due to the relative motion between earth and the mentioned preferred frame. Similarly, the gravitational force field on the whole solar system (for example, to another solar system) is due to the relative motion between the solar system and the same preferred frame. Same applies to galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc... with each upper level travelling at a lower relative velocity to its nested system. As we go higher in the cosmic hierarchy level, the red shifted frame will go higher in frequency, and the blue shifted frame will get lower, until, we reach the top hierarchy level, that of the fixed stars, in which no doppler shift will be observed relative to itself. Note however that the gravitational forces of the fixed stars, will then be sourced by the doppler effect of the relative motion between them and all the moving parts within the universe! Thus the redshift which we detect in our CMBR is in fact equivalent to the blue shift seen from the fixed stars location, and is the responsible radiation for the gravitational force holding the fixed stars.
An estimate for this upper blue shifted cosmic frequency can be found based on the EMRP theory and the known ratio for the electrostatic and gravitational forces of an electron.
Electric force field for 2 electrons Fe= e2/4.pi.eo.r2
Gravitational force field for 2 electrons Fg= GMe2/r2
It follows that the ratio Fe/Fg for 2 electrons = 4.17E42
I have already shown that the radiation pressure is inversely proportional to the squares of the frequency.
The electrostatic force is a result of the radiation pressure exerted by the frequency of the electrons internal energy: fe=mec2/h=1.236E20Hz. Frequency fg= frequency of radiation pressure equivalent to gravity. So, we have:
Fe/Fg = fg2/fe2
4.17E42 = fg2/ 1.236E202
From which we get fg = 2.52E41Hz
The ratio of Fe/Fg for different types of particles is known to be different, but if gravity is always acting on Plancktons, we should get the same frequency for fg regardless of which particles we take into consideration. So, let's now try to find fg analysis the situation between two protons. Taking the mass of a proton as 1.67E-27kg, and the magnitude of its charge equal to that of an electron:
Electric force field for 2 protons Fe= e2/4.pi.eo.r2
Gravitational force field for 2 protons Fg= GMp2/r2
So the ratio of Fe/Fg for 2 protons = 1.24E36
Frequency of the protons internal energy fp=mpc2/h=2.265E23Hz
From Fe/Fg = fg2/fp2 .. we get:
1.24E36 = fg2/ 2.265E232
From which we get again fg = 2.52E41Hz
We can now directly compute the equivalent mass of a photon like particle having the internal frequency fg which would be equivalent to our proposed Planckton and also equivalent to Le Sage theorised particle.
MPlanckton= 1.86E-9kg or 1.86ug ... so heavy but so small!
The peak wavelength and hence the diameter of the building block of matter is equal to c/f = 1.19E-33m, which is 29.36 times Planck Length. It is easy to understand that the black body curves of all matter are simply replicas of the distribution curve of the existing Plancktons around their peak wavelength value. All kinds of energy are just downshifted copies of the same distribution curve, and that's why all black body radiation curves fit the same plot.
This clearly shows that while incoming radiation is approaching us at the speed of light, the outgoing radiation is also receding us at the speed of light. This situation is analogous to the electron cloud of a hydrogen atom as described in the spherical standing wave model of the particle.
The EMRP theory is based on the existence of both redshift and blueshift radiations, which are nothing but the incoming and outgoing waves forming the standing wave medium of propagation for all electromagnetic radiation. Although with our present technology we are still incapable of directly measure or even electrically detect such proposed high frequency of the blue shifted component, powerful energy source that reach our present limit of detection have been confirmed, and so, its existence should be of no surprise, nor in conflict to any known theory. The standing wave formation proposed here is the same geometric spacetime fabric proposed by Einstein, which would also better define the older notion of the aether.